Psychometric properties of the Osteoporosis-specific Morisky Medication Adherence Scale in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis newly treated with bisphosphonates

Ann Pharmacother. 2012 May;46(5):659-70. doi: 10.1345/aph.1Q652. Epub 2012 Apr 17.


Background: Poor adherence to oral osteoporosis medications is common. Strategies for improving adherence begin with identification of the problem. The 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale for self-reported adherence to antihypertensive medications was modified for assessing adherence to oral osteoporosis medications. An evaluation of the measurement properties of the Osteoporosis-Specific Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (OS-MMAS) was needed.

Objective: To examine the psychometric properties of the OS-MMAS in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis.

Methods: Five hundred women aged 55 years and older with osteoporosis who were newly prescribed daily or weekly oral bisphosphonates between May 15, 2010, and August 15, 2010, were randomly selected from Kaiser Permanente Southern California, a large integrated health care delivery system, and mailed a self-administered survey that included the 8-item OS-MMAS, Self-Efficacy for Appropriate Medication Use Scale (SEAMS), Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire (BMQ), Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication (TSQM), Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS), and 12-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12v2). OS-MMAS scores can range from 0 to 8, with higher scores indicating better medication adherence. Internal consistency reliability was evaluated using Cronbach α coefficient. Test-retest reliability was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) in a subset of 102 participants. Construct validity was assessed using confirmatory factor analysis and correlations between OS-MMAS and related measures.

Results: Of 197 participants, 150 reported that they were still taking their bisphosphonate at the time of the survey and completed the OS-MMAS. Overall, 30.7%, 32.7%, and 36.7% had low, medium, and high OS-MMAS scores (<6, 6 to <8, and 8, respectively). Cronbach α was 0.82 and the ICC was 0.77. Convergent validity was supported by significant correlations with SEAMS, BMQ necessity, and TSQM scores. In confirmatory factor analysis, a single-factor scale was supported.

Conclusions: The OS-MMAS showed strong psychometric properties with good reliability and construct validity and may provide a valuable assessment of self-reported medication adherence in women newly prescribed oral osteoporosis medications.

Publication types

  • Evaluation Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • California
  • Diphosphonates / therapeutic use*
  • Female
  • Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
  • Health Surveys / statistics & numerical data
  • Humans
  • Medication Adherence / psychology*
  • Medication Adherence / statistics & numerical data*
  • Middle Aged
  • Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal / drug therapy
  • Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal / psychology*
  • Patient Satisfaction
  • Postmenopause / psychology*
  • Psychometrics / methods*
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Self Efficacy
  • Self Report
  • Surveys and Questionnaires*


  • Diphosphonates