Interindividual variability in cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) is believed to be largely heritable; however, predictive genetic factors have remained scarce. Using a candidate-gene approach in a human liver bank, we identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the Ah-receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT), glucocorticoid receptor (GR), progesterone receptor membrane component 2 (PGRMC2), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARA) that are associated with CYP3A4 phenotype. Validation in atorvastatin-treated volunteers confirmed a decrease in atorvastatin-2-hydroxylation in carriers of PPARA SNP rs4253728. Homozygous carriers expressed significantly less PPAR-α protein in the liver. Moreover, shRNA-mediated PPARA gene knockdown in primary human hepatocytes decreased expression levels of the PPAR-α target ACOX1 and of CYP3A4 by more than 50%. In conclusion, this study identified novel genetic determinants of CYP3A4 that, together with nongenetic factors, explained 52, 55, and 33% of hepatic CYP3A4 mRNA, protein, and atorvastatin-2-hydroxylase activity, respectively. These findings have implications for variability in response to drug substrates of CYP3A4.