The available time window for embryo transfer in the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta)

Am J Primatol. 2012 Feb;74(2):165-73. doi: 10.1002/ajp.21017.


Much effort has been focused on improving assisted reproductive technology procedures in humans and nonhuman primates (NHPs). However, the pregnancy rate after embryo transfer (ET) has not been satisfactory, indicating that some barriers still need to be overcome in this important procedure. One of the key factors is embryo–uterine synchronicity, which is little known in NHPs. The objective of this study was to investigate the available ET time window in rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta). Eighty-two adult female rhesus monkeys were superovulated with recombinant human FSH. Ovarian phases were identified according to estrogen (E2) and progesterone (P4) levels as well as ovarian examination by ultrasonography and laparoscopy. A total of 259 embryos were transferred by the laparoscopic approach into the oviducts of 63 adult female monkeys. Ovarian phases were divided into late follicular and early luteal phases. Similar pregnancy rates (30–36.4%) were obtained from recipients receiving ET either in their late follicular or early luteal phases, regardless of embryo developmental stages. This study indicates that the available time window for ET in rhesus monkeys is from the late follicular to early luteal phases.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Embryo Transfer / veterinary*
  • Embryo, Mammalian
  • Embryonic Development
  • Estrogens / blood
  • Female
  • Fertilization in Vitro / veterinary*
  • Follicle Stimulating Hormone, Human / administration & dosage
  • Follicular Phase
  • Humans
  • Luteal Phase
  • Macaca mulatta / physiology*
  • Oocytes / growth & development
  • Ovary / diagnostic imaging
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy Outcome / veterinary*
  • Pregnancy Rate*
  • Progesterone / blood
  • Recombinant Proteins / administration & dosage
  • Superovulation
  • Time Factors
  • Ultrasonography


  • Estrogens
  • Follicle Stimulating Hormone, Human
  • Recombinant Proteins
  • Progesterone