The California Verbal Learning Test and structural brain imaging were administered to 57 subjects with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and 94 controls in a general population sample. Cases had lower semantic cluster scores. Poorer verbal memory strategies were associated with longer duration of illness and heavier use of antipsychotic medication. After controlling for duration of illness, sex, and total gray matter, poorer verbal memory was associated with lower gray matter volume in the cingulate cortex, juxtapositional lobule, right superior temporal gyrus, and precuneus. After controlling for use of antipsychotic medication, there was an association between higher serial clustering and smaller anterior cingulate gyrus and larger intracalcarine cortex.