Purpose: This case report describes a biologic complication related to polylactic acid membrane in guided bone regeneration (GBR).
Materials and methods: A healthy 42-year-old patient complained of persistent discomfort of the maxillary anterior gingiva. Clinical examination and radiographs showed severe periodontal destruction of teeth 7 through 10. Teeth extraction was followed by early implant placement with GBR.
Results: Four months later, severe bone resorption was observed upon surgical exposure. A second GBR was performed. Wound healing progressed uneventfully and an implant-supported fixed partial denture was later loaded.
Conclusion: We presume that this complication was a foreign body reaction to the polylactic acid membrane. Such a reaction can affect soft and hard tissue healing following GBR. Long-term follow-up is needed to determine stability of the results.