Reference values for three-dimensional surface cephalometry in children aged 3-6 years

Orthod Craniofac Res. 2012 May;15(2):103-16. doi: 10.1111/j.1601-6343.2012.01541.x.


Objective: This prospective cross-sectional study design was performed to define reference values for the facial surfaces of 3-6-year-old boys and girls using three-dimensional surface cephalometry.

Material and methods: A total of 2290 standardized three-dimensional facial images from 3 to 6-year-old preschool children were separated by gender and assigned to four age categories. All children were Caucasian and revealed no evidence of dentofacial abnormalities. On each image, 31 cephalometric landmarks were marked, resulting in 35 (19 frontal, six lateral, 10 paired) distances and eight angles. Differences between age groups and genders were calculated and significances detected.

Results: A base table with reference values was compiled, which indicated that boys showed higher values than age-matched girls and that measured distances increased with age.

Conclusion: The mean values from this study could be compiled as a reference table for three-dimensional facial analysis in Caucasian children aged 3-6 years. Such a reference table could be used in comparative studies with other populations or children with craniofacial malformations.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Cephalometry / statistics & numerical data*
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • European Continental Ancestry Group / statistics & numerical data
  • Face / anatomy & histology*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Image Processing, Computer-Assisted
  • Imaging, Three-Dimensional
  • Male
  • Photogrammetry
  • Prospective Studies
  • Reference Values
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Sex Factors