Intravitreal injection therapy in the treatment of noninfectious uveitis

Dev Ophthalmol. 2012:51:110-21. doi: 10.1159/000336471. Epub 2012 Apr 17.


Uveitis is responsible for 5-20% of legal blindness in the United States and in Europe. In noninfectious uveitis, the most frequent uveitic complication that endangers sight is cystoid macular edema. Clinical characteristics, inflammation grading and visual acuity determine the choice of the correct therapy for each patient. We can utilize drugs either alone or in combination using different dosages and routes of administration. Intravitreal injection directly into the vitreous cavity leads to rapid therapeutic drug concentration in the retinal tissue and reduces systemic side effects. Intravitreally injected triamcinolone acetonide is the most powerful drug for the treatment of cystoid macular edema related to intraocular inflammation, but it also causes the most frequent and serious side effects. Due to the numerous side effects associated with the use of corticosteroids, there is a need to identify other anti-inflammatory agents with a better safety profile. Recent studies have demonstrated that intravitreal immunosuppressant injections of methotrexate or anti-VEGF agents may lead to fewer intraocular side effects, but also have a lower therapeutic activity for the reduction of macular edema. At present, intraocular anti-TNF-α drugs do not show promising results. As regards nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, further data are necessary to fully understand their efficacy and potential side effects.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / administration & dosage*
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / pharmacokinetics
  • Humans
  • Immunosuppressive Agents / administration & dosage*
  • Immunosuppressive Agents / pharmacokinetics
  • Intravitreal Injections
  • Macular Degeneration / etiology
  • Macular Degeneration / prevention & control
  • Macular Edema / etiology
  • Macular Edema / prevention & control
  • Uveitis / complications
  • Uveitis / drug therapy*
  • Uveitis / metabolism


  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents
  • Immunosuppressive Agents