The role of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) in mitochondrial oxidative damage and redox signaling is poorly understood, because it is difficult to measure H(2)O(2) in vivo. Here we describe a method for assessing changes in H(2)O(2) within the mitochondrial matrix of living Drosophila. We use a ratiometric mass spectrometry probe, MitoB ((3-hydroxybenzyl)triphenylphosphonium bromide), which contains a triphenylphosphonium cation component that drives its accumulation within mitochondria. The arylboronic moiety of MitoB reacts with H(2)O(2) to form a phenol product, MitoP. On injection into the fly, MitoB is rapidly taken up by mitochondria and the extent of its conversion to MitoP enables the quantification of H(2)O(2). To assess MitoB conversion to MitoP, the compounds are extracted and the MitoP/MitoB ratio is quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry relative to deuterated internal standards. This method facilitates the investigation of mitochondrial H(2)O(2) in fly models of pathology and metabolic alteration, and it can also be extended to assess mitochondrial H(2)O(2) production in mouse and cell culture studies.