Background: HIV associated anaemia is always overseen and it could be a challenge for prognosis of patients who are taking ART. The prevalence of anemia due to HIV at the early stage of infection is more prevalent than in the late stage. Knowing the impact of HIV on the haematopotosis of HIV infected patients is very essential for the management and care of people living with HIV/AIDS. HIV related anemia decreases the quality of life and survival rate of HIV patients.
Objective: The aim of this study is to determine prevalence of HIV associated anaemia before and after initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV infected adults.
Method: A retrospective record review was conducted on HIV infected patients before ART and had follow up at the ART Clinic of Minilik II Hospital Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Haemoglobin measurement and CD4+ T cell count was measured using standard methodology at baseline and after 4 months of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Paired t -test was used to assess mean differences for haemoglobin and CD4+ T cell count before and after ART initiation.
Results: Of the 230 study subjects 121 (52.6%) were anemic before ART. However, the prevalence of anemia after ART (37.4%) was significantly decreased (p < 0.05). The prevalence of anemia was higher in females than in males at base line (70.25% vs. 29.75%) (P = 0.017), and after ART treatment (69.23% vs. 30.77%) (P = 0.000). Mean CD4 cell count of study subjects was 112 cells/microl +/- 67/microl at baseline. The mean CD4+ T cell count is significantly increased after ART and found to be 211 cells/microl +/- 120/microl (p < 0.05). Significance association was observed between Hb aind CD4+ T cell count after ART (P = 0.011).
Conclusions: There was a decline in the prevalence of anemia and increment of mean CD4+ T cell count among HIV infected patients after ART. However, a number of HIV/AIDS patients had still anemia and their CD4+ T cell count is not improved. Thus, there should be a large scale and longitudinal study for further characterization of HIV related anemia.