Bacteria move between cells in the epithelium using a sequential pseudopodium-mediated process but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We show that during cell-to-cell movement, Shigella-containing pseudopodia target epithelial tricellular junctions, the contact point where three epithelial cells meet. The bacteria-containing pseudopodia were engulfed by neighboring cells only in the presence of tricellulin, a protein essential for tricellular junction integrity. Shigella cell-to-cell spread, but not pseudopodium protrusion, also depended on phosphoinositide 3-kinase, clathrin, Epsin-1, and Dynamin-2, which localized beneath the plasma membrane of the engulfing cell. Depleting tricellulin, Epsin-1, clathrin, or Dynamin-2 expression reduced Shigella cell-to-cell spread, whereas AP-2, Dab2, and Eps15 were not critical for this process. Our findings highlight a mechanism for Shigella dissemination into neighboring cells via targeting of tricellular junctions and a noncanonical clathrin-dependent endocytic pathway.
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