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Meta-Analysis
, 163 (4), 666-76.e1-3

Exercise Intervention and Inflammatory Markers in Coronary Artery Disease: A Meta-Analysis

Affiliations
Meta-Analysis

Exercise Intervention and Inflammatory Markers in Coronary Artery Disease: A Meta-Analysis

Walter Swardfager et al. Am Heart J.

Abstract

Background: Inflammatory activity plays a role in the development and progression of coronary artery disease (CAD), and exercise confers survival benefit. We performed a meta-analysis of changes in inflammatory biomarkers over the course of exercise interventions in patients with CAD.

Methods: We searched MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Collaboration, AMED, and CINAHL for studies reporting peripheral inflammatory biomarker concentrations before and after exercise interventions of ≥ 2 weeks in patients with CAD. Data were summarized using standard mean differences (SMD) and 95% CIs.

Results: Twenty-three studies were included. Concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP; SMD -0.345, 95% CI -0.444 to -0.246, n = 1,466, P < .001), interleukin 6 (SMD -0.546, 95% CI -0.739 to -0.353, n = 280, P < .001), fibrinogen (SMD -0.638, 95% CI -0.953 to -0.323, n = 247, P < .001), and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (SMD -0.413, 95% CI -0.778 to -0.048, n = 187, P = .027) were lower postintervention. Higher total cholesterol (B = -0.328, 95% CI -0.612 to -0.043, P = .026) and higher total/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratios (B = -0.250, 95% CI -0.425 to -0.076, P = .008) at baseline were associated with greater reductions in CRP. In controlled studies, follow-up concentrations of CRP (SMD -0.500, 95% CI -0.844 to -0.157, n(exercise/control) = 485/284, P = .004), and fibrinogen (SMD -0.544, 95% CI -1.058 to -0.030, n(exercise/control) = 148/100, P = .038) were lower in subjects who exercised compared with controls.

Conclusion: Exercise training is associated with reduced inflammatory activity in patients with CAD. C-reactive protein and fibrinogen have provided the strongest evidence. Higher baseline CRP and adverse baseline lipid profiles predicted greater reductions in CRP.

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