Inborn errors of the genes encoding two of the four human JAKs (JAK3 and TYK2) and three of the six human STATs (STAT1, STAT3, and STAT5B) have been described. We review the disorders arising from mutations in these five genes, highlighting the way in which the molecular and cellular pathogenesis of these conditions has been clarified by the discovery of inborn errors of cytokines, hormones, and their receptors, including those interacting with JAKs and STATs. The phenotypic similarities between mice and humans lacking individual JAK-STAT components suggest that the functions of JAKs and STATs are largely conserved in mammals. However, a wide array of phenotypic differences has emerged between mice and humans carrying biallelic null alleles of JAK3, TYK2, STAT1, or STAT5B. Moreover, the high degree of allelic heterogeneity at the human JAK3, TYK2, STAT1, and STAT3 loci has revealed highly diverse immunological and clinical phenotypes, which had not been anticipated.
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