Neuromodulation of pelvic visceral pain: review of the literature and case series of potential novel targets for treatment

Pain Pract. 2013 Jan;13(1):3-17. doi: 10.1111/j.1533-2500.2012.00558.x. Epub 2012 Apr 23.


Chronic pelvic pain (CPP) is complex and often resistant to treatment. While the exact pathophysiology is unknown, the pain states resultant from conditions such as interstitial cystitis and the like yield patients with a presentation that bears a striking similarity to neuropathic syndromes that are known to respond to neuromodulation. While there has been past success using the sacral region as a target for spinal cord stimulation (SCS) to treat these patients, there remains to be a consensus on the optimal location for lead placement. In this article, the authors discuss the potential etiology of CPP, examine the current literature on lead placement for SCS as a method of treatment, as well as present several cases where novel lead placement was successfully employed.

Publication types

  • Case Reports
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Animals
  • Electric Stimulation Therapy / methods*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Neurotransmitter Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Visceral Pain / classification
  • Visceral Pain / etiology
  • Visceral Pain / therapy*


  • Neurotransmitter Agents