The pituitary tumor transforming gene (PTTG) is a multifunctional proto-oncogene that is over-expressed in various tumors including thyroid carcinomas, where it is a prognostic indicator of tumor recurrence. PTTG has potent transforming capabilities in vitro and in vivo, and many studies have investigated the potential mechanisms by which PTTG contributes to tumorigenesis. As the human securin, PTTG is involved in critical mechanisms of cell cycle regulation, whereby aberrant expression induces aneuploidy. PTTG may further contribute to tumorigenesis through its role in DNA damage response pathways and via complex interactions with hormones and growth factors. Furthermore, PTTG over-expression negatively impacts upon the efficacy of radioiodine therapy in thyroid cancer, through repression of expression and function of the sodium iodide symporter. Given its various roles at all disease stages, PTTG appears to be an important oncogene in thyroid cancer. This review discusses the current knowledge of PTTG with particular focus on its role in thyroid cancer.