Testosterone and cardiovascular disease in men

Asian J Androl. 2012 May;14(3):428-35. doi: 10.1038/aja.2012.21. Epub 2012 Apr 23.


Despite regional variations in the prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD), men are consistently more at risk of developing and dying from CAD than women, and the gender-specific effects of sex hormones are implicated in this inequality. This 'Perspectives' article reviews the current evidence regarding the cardiovascular effects of testosterone in men including an examination of the age-related decline in testosterone, the relationship between testosterone levels and coronary disease, coronary risk factors and mortality. We also review the vaso-active effects of testosterone, and discuss how these have been used in men with heart failure and angina. We discuss the 'cause' versus 'effect' controversy, regarding low testosterone levels in men with coronary heart disease, as well as concerns over the use of testosterone replacement therapy in middle aged and elderly men. The article concludes with a discussion regarding the future direction for work in this interesting area, including the relative merits of screening for, and treating hypogonadism with testosterone replacement therapy in men with heart disease.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aging / blood*
  • Angina Pectoris / blood*
  • Angina Pectoris / drug therapy
  • Arteries / drug effects
  • Coronary Artery Disease / blood*
  • Coronary Artery Disease / complications
  • Coronary Artery Disease / mortality
  • Heart Failure / blood*
  • Heart Failure / drug therapy
  • Hormone Replacement Therapy / methods
  • Humans
  • Hypogonadism / complications
  • Hypogonadism / drug therapy
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Risk Factors
  • Survival Rate
  • Testosterone / blood*
  • Testosterone / pharmacology
  • Testosterone / therapeutic use
  • Vasodilator Agents / pharmacology
  • Vasodilator Agents / therapeutic use


  • Vasodilator Agents
  • Testosterone