Deep RNA sequencing reveals novel cardiac transcriptomic signatures for physiological and pathological hypertrophy

PLoS One. 2012;7(4):e35552. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0035552. Epub 2012 Apr 16.

Abstract

Although both physiological hypertrophy (PHH) and pathological hypertrophy (PAH) of the heart have similar morphological appearances, only PAH leads to fatal heart failure. In the present study, we used RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) to determine the transcriptomic signatures for both PHH and PAH. Approximately 13-20 million reads were obtained for both models, among which PAH showed more differentially expressed genes (DEGs) (2,041) than PHH (245). The expression of 417 genes was barely detectable in the normal heart but was suddenly activated in PAH. Among them, Foxm1 and Plk1 are of particular interest, since Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) using DEGs and upstream motif analysis showed that they are essential hub proteins that regulate the expression of downstream proteins associated with PAH. Meanwhile, 52 genes related to collagen, chemokines, and actin showed opposite expression patterns between PHH and PAH. MAZ-binding motifs were enriched in the upstream region of the participating genes. Alternative splicing (AS) of exon variants was also examined using RNA-Seq data for PAH and PHH. We found 317 and 196 exon inclusions and exon exclusions, respectively, for PAH, and 242 and 172 exon inclusions and exclusions, respectively for PHH. The AS pattern was mostly related to gains or losses of domains, changes in activity, and localization of the encoded proteins. The splicing variants of 8 genes (i.e., Fhl1, Rcan1, Ndrg2, Synpo, Ttll1, Cxxc5, Egfl7, and Tmpo) were experimentally confirmed. Multilateral pathway analysis showed that the patterns of quantitative (DEG) and qualitative (AS) changes differ depending on the type of pathway in PAH and PHH. One of the most significant changes in PHH is the severe downregulation of autoimmune pathways accompanied by significant AS. These findings revealed the unique transcriptomic signatures of PAH and PHH and also provided a more comprehensive understanding at both the quantitative and qualitative levels.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Alternative Splicing
  • Animals
  • Cardiomegaly / complications
  • Cardiomegaly / genetics*
  • Cell Cycle Proteins / biosynthesis
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Exons
  • Forkhead Box Protein M1
  • Forkhead Transcription Factors / biosynthesis
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Heart Failure / etiology
  • High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing*
  • Hypertrophy / genetics*
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Myocardium / pathology
  • Protein Array Analysis
  • Protein Isoforms / genetics
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / biosynthesis
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins / biosynthesis
  • Sequence Analysis, RNA*

Substances

  • Cell Cycle Proteins
  • Forkhead Box Protein M1
  • Forkhead Transcription Factors
  • Foxm1 protein, mouse
  • Protein Isoforms
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
  • polo-like kinase 1