Background: Type-2 Diabetes is a major health concern in the United States and other Westernized countries, with prevalence increasing yearly. There is a need to better model and predict adverse drug reactions, drug-induced liver injury, and drug efficacy in this population. Because transporters significantly contribute to drug clearance and disposition, it is highly significant to determine whether a severe diabetes phenotype alters drug transporter expression, and whether diabetic mouse models have altered disposition of acetaminophen (APAP) metabolites.
Results: Transporter mRNA and protein expression were quantified in livers and kidneys of adult C57BKS and db/db mice, which have a severe diabetes phenotype due to a lack of a functional leptin receptor. The urinary excretion of acetaminophen-glucuronide, a substrate for multidrug resistance-associated proteins transporters was also determined. The mRNA expression of major uptake transporters, such as organic anion transporting polypeptide Slco1a1 in liver and kidney, 1a4 in liver, and Slc22a7 in kidney was decreased in db/db mice. In contrast, Abcc3 and 4 mRNA and protein expression was more than 2 fold higher in db/db male mouse livers as compared to C57BKS controls. Urine levels of APAP-glucuronide, -sulfate, and N-acetyl cysteine metabolites were higher in db/db mice.
Conclusion: A severe diabetes phenotype/presentation significantly altered drug transporter expression in liver and kidney, which corresponded with urinary APAP metabolite levels.