The mechanism of the Golgi-to-ER transport of Golgi glycosyltransferases is not clear. We utilize a cell line expressing the core 2 N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase-M (C2GnT-M) tagged with c-Myc to explore this mechanism. By immunoprecipitation using anti-c-Myc antibodies coupled with proteomics analysis, we have identified several proteins including non-muscle myosin IIA (NMIIA), heat shock protein (HSP)-70 and ubiquitin activating enzyme E1 in the immunoprecipitate. Employing yeast-two-hybrid analysis and pulldown experiments, we show that the C-terminal region of the NMIIA heavy chain binds to the 1-6 amino acids in the cytoplasmic tail of C2GnT-M. We have found that NMIIA co-localizes with C2GnT-M at the periphery of the Golgi. In addition, inhibition or knockdown of NMIIA prevents the brefeldin A-induced collapse of the Golgi as shown by the inhibition of the migration of both Giantin, a Golgi matrix protein, and C2GnT-M, a Golgi non-matrix protein, to the ER. In contrast, knockdown of HSP70 retains Giantin in the Golgi but moves C2GnT-M to the ER, a process also blocked by inhibition or knockdown of NMIIA. Also, the intracellular distribution of C2GnT-M is not affected by knockdown of β-coatomer protein with or without inhibition of HSPs, suggesting that the Golgi-to-ER trafficking of C2GnT-M does not depend on coat protein complex-I. Further, inhibition of proteasome results in accumulation of ubiquitinated C2GnT-M, suggesting its degradation by proteasome. Therefore, NMIIA and not coat protein complex-I is responsible for transporting the Golgi glycosyltransferase to the ER for proteasomal degradation. The data suggest that NMIIA is involved in the Golgi remodeling.
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