Hemoglobin adducts as a measure of variations in exposure to acrylamide in food and comparison to questionnaire data

Food Chem Toxicol. 2012 Jul;50(7):2531-9. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2012.04.004. Epub 2012 Apr 16.


Measurement of haemoglobin (Hb) adducts from acrylamide (AA) and its metabolite glycidamide (GA) is a possibility to improve the exposure assessment in epidemiological studies of AA intake from food. This study aims to clarify the reliability of Hb-adduct measurement from individual single samples for exposure assessment of dietary AA intake. The intra-individual variations of AA- and GA-adduct levels measured in blood samples collected over 20 months from 13 non-smokers were up to 2-fold and 4-fold, respectively. The corresponding interindividual variations observed between 68 non-smokers, with large differences in AA intake, were 6-fold and 8-fold, respectively. The intra-individual variation of the GA-to-AA-adduct level ratio was up to 3-fold, compared to 11-fold between individuals (n = 68). From AA-adduct levels the average AA daily intake (n = 68) was calculated and compared to that estimated from dietary history methodology: 0.52 and 0.67 μg/kg body weight and day, respectively. At an individual level the measures showed low association (Rs = 0.39).

Conclusions: Dietary AA is the dominating source to measured AA-adduct levels and corresponding inter- and intra-individual variations in non-smokers. Measurements from single individual samples are useful for calculation of average AA intake and its variation in a cohort, and for identification of individuals only from extreme intake groups.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Acrylamide / toxicity*
  • Adult
  • Female
  • Food*
  • Hemoglobins / chemistry*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Surveys and Questionnaires


  • Hemoglobins
  • Acrylamide