Viruses have evolved to manipulate the host cell machinery for virus propagation, in part by interfering with the host cellular signaling network. Molecular studies of individual pathways have uncovered many viral host-protein targets; however, it is difficult to predict how viral perturbations will affect the signaling network as a whole. Systems biology approaches rely on multivariate, context-dependent measurements and computational analysis to elucidate how viral infection alters host cell signaling at a network level. Here we describe recent advances in systems analyses of signaling networks in both viral and non-viral biological contexts. These approaches have the potential to uncover virus- mediated changes to host signaling networks, suggest new therapeutic strategies, and assess how cell-to-cell variability affects host responses to infection. We argue that systems approaches will both improve understanding of how individual virus-host protein interactions fit into the progression of viral pathogenesis and help to identify novel therapeutic targets.