The aim of this study was to investigate thyroid states, significance of anti-TSH receptor antibodies and the clinical courses of patients with euthyroid Graves' ophthalmopathy. The clinical and laboratory finding of 30 patients with euthyroid Graves' ophthalmopathy were briefly as follows: 1) normal sized thyroid or small goiter; 2) negative or weakly positive thyrotropin binding inhibitor immunoglobulin (TBII); 3) normal thyroid [99 m-Tc] pertechnetate uptake; and 4) frequent observations of low serum TSH values. Besides TBII, thyroid stimulating antibody (TSAb) was measured under low salt and isotonic conditions using FRTL-5 rat thyroid cells. Both TBII and TSAb titers were lower in euthyroid Graves' ophthalmopathy than in hyperthyroid Graves' disease. Serum TSH levels frequently became low in patients considered as euthyroid upon the first examination as well as in Graves' patients in remission, reflecting preceding or mild hyperthyroidism. In follow-up studies, these patients with mildly elevated thyroid hormone levels and low TSH levels seldom reached a state of persistent hyperthyroidism, when TBII was negative or only weakly positive.