Objective: Due to the rapid proliferation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment options, there is a need for health care providers with knowledge of antiretroviral therapy intricacies. In a HIV multidisciplinary care team, the HIV pharmacist is well-equipped to provide this expertise. We conducted a systematic review to assess the impact of HIV pharmacists on HIV clinical outcomes.
Methods: We searched six electronic databases from January 1, 1980 to June 1, 2011 and included all quantitative studies that examined pharmacist's roles in the clinical care of HIV-positive adults. Primary outcomes were antiretroviral adherence, viral load, and CD(4) (+) cell count and secondary outcomes included health care utilization parameters, antiretroviral modifications, and other descriptive variables.
Results: Thirty-two publications were included. Despite methodological limitation, the involvement of HIV pharmacists was associated with statistically significant adherence improvements and positive impact on viral suppression in the majority of studies.
Conclusion: This systematic review provides evidence of the beneficial impact of HIV pharmacists on HIV treatment outcomes and offers suggestions for future research.
Keywords: HIV/AIDS; adherence; clinical; impact; pharmacist.