Testosterone replacement therapy outcomes among opioid users: the Testim Registry in the United States (TRiUS)

Pain Med. 2012 May;13(5):688-98. doi: 10.1111/j.1526-4637.2012.01368.x. Epub 2012 Apr 26.


Objective: Among patients with hypogonadism-associated comorbidities, opioid users have the highest incidence of hypogonadism. Data from the Testim Registry in the United States were analyzed to determine the efficacy of testosterone replacement therapy in opioid users vs nonusers.

Design: Prospective, 12-month observational cohort registry.

Subjects: Hypogonadal men (N = 849) prescribed Testim (but not necessarily testosterone replacement) for the first time.

Interventions: Testim 1% testosterone gel (5-10 g/day).

Outcome measures: Total and free testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin, prostate-specific antigen, sexual function, mood/depression, and anthropometric data were assessed. Changes from baseline were analyzed using repeated measures mixed-effects analysis of variance; multiple linear regressions of changes in testosterone levels with sexual function, mood, and opioid use were computed.

Results: 90/849 patients (10.6%) reported opioid use at baseline; 75/90 (83%) used opioids for ≥ 30 days prior to baseline. Baseline total testosterone and prostate-specific antigen were not statistically different between opioid users and nonusers; there was a trend for higher sex hormone-binding globulin (P = 0.08) and lower free testosterone (P = 0.05) in opioid users. After 1 month, both opioid users and nonusers had significant (P < 0.001) increases in total and free testosterone, which continued through 12 months. Sexual function and mood improved significantly in both opioid users and nonusers over 12 months, and significantly correlated with change in total testosterone.

Conclusions: Testosterone replacement therapy increased serum testosterone in hypogonadal opioid users and nonusers alike. The data suggest that with testosterone replacement, hypogonadal opioid users might be expected to have similar improvements in sexual function and mood as opioid nonusers.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Analgesics, Opioid / therapeutic use*
  • Cohort Studies
  • Hormone Replacement Therapy* / adverse effects
  • Humans
  • Hypogonadism / drug therapy*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prospective Studies
  • Registries*
  • Testosterone / blood
  • Testosterone / therapeutic use*
  • Treatment Outcome
  • United States


  • Analgesics, Opioid
  • Testosterone