Objectives: This study evaluated the usefulness of fluorodesoxyglucose marked by fluorine-18 ((18)F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) and computed tomography (CT) in patients with suspected cardiovascular implantable electronic device (CIED) infection.
Background: CIED infection is sometimes challenging to diagnose. Because extraction is associated with significant morbidity/mortality, new imaging modalities to confirm the infection and its dissemination would be of clinical value.
Methods: Three groups were compared. In Group A, 42 patients with suspected CIED infection underwent (18)F-FDG PET/CT. Positive PET/CT was defined as abnormal uptake along cardiac devices. Group B included 12 patients without infection who underwent PET/CT 4 to 8 weeks post-implant. Group C included 12 patients implanted for >6 months without infection who underwent PET/CT for another indication. Semi-quantitative ratio (SQR) was obtained from the ratio between maximal uptake and lung parenchyma uptake.
Results: In Group A, 32 of 42 patients with suspected CIED infection had positive PET/CT. Twenty-four patients with positive PET/CT underwent extraction with excellent correlation. In 7 patients with positive PET/CT, 6 were treated as superficial infection with clinical resolution. One patient with positive PET/CT but negative leukocyte scan was considered false positive due to Dacron pouch. Ten patients with negative-PET/CT were treated with antibiotics and none has relapsed at 12.9 ± 1.9 months. In Group B, patients had mild uptake seen at the level of the connector. There was no abnormal uptake in Group C patients. Median SQR was significantly higher in Group A (A = 2.02 vs. B = 1.08 vs. C = 0.57; p < 0.001).
Conclusions: PET/CT is useful in differentiating between CIED infection and recent post-implant changes. It may guide appropriate therapy.
Copyright © 2012 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.