Prevalence, correlates, comorbidities, and suicidal tendencies of premenstrual dysphoric disorder in a nationwide sample of Korean women

Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2012 Dec;47(12):1937-45. doi: 10.1007/s00127-012-0509-6. Epub 2012 Apr 27.


Purpose: We examined the prevalence, correlates, comorbidities, and suicidal tendencies of premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) according to the DSM-IV criteria in a nationwide sample of Korean women.

Methods: A total of 2,499 women aged 18-64 years participated in this study. Diagnostic assessments were based on the Korean version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) 2.1 and its 12-month PMDD diagnostic module, which were administered by lay interviewers. The frequencies of DSM-IV psychiatric disorders, insomnia, and suicidal tendency were analyzed among PMDD cases and compared with non-PMDD cases, and both odds ratios and significance levels were calculated.

Results: The 12-month prevalence rate of DSM-IV-diagnosed PMDD was 2.4 %. Among subjects with PMDD, 59.3 % had at least one psychiatric illness; in comparison, the control frequency was 21.8 %. Associations between PMDD and alcohol abuse/dependence, major depressive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, social phobia, specific phobia, somatoform disorder, insomnia, and suicidality were overwhelmingly positive and significant (p < 0.05), after controlling for age. Physical illness and being underweight were associated with increased risks of PMDD (p < 0.05).

Conclusions: PMDD was prevalent in the nationwide sample of Korean women and was frequently associated with other psychiatric disorders, insomnia, and suicidality, suggesting the need to detect and treat women who experience PMDD.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Asian Continental Ancestry Group / psychology
  • Asian Continental Ancestry Group / statistics & numerical data*
  • Comorbidity
  • Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Interview, Psychological
  • Mental Disorders / diagnosis
  • Mental Disorders / epidemiology*
  • Mental Disorders / psychology
  • Middle Aged
  • Odds Ratio
  • Premenstrual Syndrome / diagnosis*
  • Premenstrual Syndrome / epidemiology*
  • Premenstrual Syndrome / psychology
  • Prevalence
  • Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
  • Republic of Korea / epidemiology
  • Risk Factors
  • Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders / epidemiology
  • Socioeconomic Factors
  • Suicide / ethnology
  • Suicide / psychology
  • Suicide / statistics & numerical data*
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Young Adult