International epidemiology of intracerebral hemorrhage

Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2012 Aug;14(4):300-6. doi: 10.1007/s11883-012-0252-1.


Intracerebral hemorrhage is the second most common subtype of stroke. In recent decades our understanding of intracerebral hemorrhage has improved. New risk factors have been identified; more knowledge has been obtained on previously known risk factors; and new imaging techniques allow for in vivo assessment of preclinical markers of intracerebral hemorrhage. In this review the latest developments in research on intracerebral hemorrhage are highlighted from an epidemiologic point of view. Special focus is on frequency, etiologic factors and pre-clinical markers of intracerebral hemorrhage.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Alcohol Drinking / adverse effects*
  • Anticoagulants / adverse effects*
  • Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy / complications*
  • Cerebral Hemorrhage / diagnosis
  • Cerebral Hemorrhage / epidemiology*
  • Cerebral Hemorrhage / etiology
  • Diabetes Complications*
  • Genetic Predisposition to Disease
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / complications*
  • Intracranial Hemorrhage, Hypertensive / diagnosis
  • Intracranial Hemorrhage, Hypertensive / epidemiology*
  • Intracranial Hemorrhage, Hypertensive / etiology
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Prognosis
  • Retinal Vessels / pathology
  • Risk Factors
  • Smoking / adverse effects*


  • Anticoagulants