Proteomic investigation of anti-tumor activities exerted by sinularin against A2058 melanoma cells

Electrophoresis. 2012 Apr;33(7):1139-52. doi: 10.1002/elps.201100462.


The extracts from soft corals have been increasingly investigated for biomedical and therapeutic purposes. The aim of this study is to examine and analyze the anti-tumor effects of the genus Sinularia extract sinularin on A2058 melanoma cells using MTT assay, cell migration assay, wound healing assay, flow cytometric analysis, and proteomic analysis. Sinularin dose-dependently (1-5 μg/mL) inhibited melanoma cell proliferation while the treatment at identical concentrations suppressed cell migration. Sinularin dose-dependently enhanced apoptotic melanoma cells and caused tumor cell accumulation at G2/M phase, indicating that sinularin exerts apoptosis-induced and cell cycle-delayed activities in A2058 melanoma cells. Comparative proteomic analysis was conducted to investigate the effects of sinularin at the molecular level by comparison between the protein profiling of melanoma cells treated with sinularin and without the treatment. Thirty-five differential proteins (13 upregulated and 22 downregulated) concerning the treatment were identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Proteomic data and Western blot displayed the levels of several tumor inhibitory or apoptosis-associated proteins including annexin A1, voltage-dependent anion-selective channel protein 1 and prohibitin (upregulated), heat shock protein 60, heat shock protein beta-1, and peroxiredoxin-2 (downregulated) in A2058 melanoma cells exposed to sinularin. Increased expression of p53, cleaved-caspase-3, cleaved-caspase-8, cleaved-caspase-9, p21, and Bax and decreased expression of Bcl-2 in sinularin-treated melanoma cells suggest that the anti-tumor activities of sinularin against melanoma cells are particularly correlated with these pro-apoptotic factors. These data provide important information for the mechanisms of anti-tumor effects of sinularin on melanoma cells and may be helpful for drug development and progression monitoring of human melanoma.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anthozoa / chemistry*
  • Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / chemistry
  • Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / pharmacology*
  • Apoptosis / drug effects
  • Blotting, Western
  • Cell Line, Tumor
  • Cell Movement / drug effects
  • Diterpenes / chemistry
  • Diterpenes / pharmacology*
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional
  • Flow Cytometry
  • Heterocyclic Compounds, 3-Ring / chemistry
  • Heterocyclic Compounds, 3-Ring / pharmacology*
  • Humans
  • Melanoma / drug therapy*
  • Melanoma / metabolism*
  • Proteins / analysis
  • Proteins / classification
  • Proteins / metabolism
  • Proteome / analysis
  • Proteome / drug effects
  • Proteome / metabolism
  • Proteomics
  • Reproducibility of Results


  • Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic
  • Diterpenes
  • Heterocyclic Compounds, 3-Ring
  • Proteins
  • Proteome
  • sinularin