Context: Vaspin is an adipokine with insulin-sensitizing effects identified from visceral adipose tissues of genetically obese rats.
Objective: We investigated genetic and nongenetic factors that define serum concentrations of vaspin.
Design, setting and participants: Vaspin levels were measured with RIA in Japanese subjects with normal fasting plasma glucose (NFG; n = 259) and type 2 diabetes patients (T2D; n = 275). Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) at SERPINA12 (vaspin) gene locus were discovered, and five SNP were genotyped in the subjects with varied body mass index (n = 1138).
Results: The level of serum vaspin in 93% of the samples was found to vary from 0.2 to nearly 2 ng/ml in NFG subjects (n = 259) and from 0.2 to nearly 3 ng/ml in T2D patients (n = 275) (Vaspin(Low) group), whereas a significant subpopulation (7%) in both groups displayed much higher levels of 10-40 ng/ml (Vaspin(High) group). In the Vaspin(Low) group, serum vaspin levels in T2D were significantly higher than healthy subjects (0.99 ± 0.04 vs. 0.86 ± 0.02 ng/ml; P < 0.01). Both in T2D and genotyped Japanese population, serum vaspin levels closely correlated with homeostasis model of assessment for insulin resistance rather than anthropometric parameters. By genotyping, rs77060950 tightly linked to serum vaspin levels, i.e. CC (0.6 ± 0.4 ng/ml), CA (18.4 ± 9.6 ng/ml), and AA (30.5 ± 5.1 ng/ml) (P < 2 × 10(-16)). Putative GATA-2 and GATA-3 binding consensus site was found at rs77060950.
Conclusions: Serum vaspin levels were related to insulin resistance, and higher levels of serum vaspin in 7% of the Japanese population are closely linked to minor allele sequence (A) of rs77060950.