Objective: Osteogenic repair in response to bone injury is characterized by activation and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to osteoblasts. This study determined whether activation of Sirt-1 (a NAD(+)-dependent histone deacetylase) by the phytoestrogen resveratrol affects osteogenic differentiation.
Methods: Monolayer and high-density cultures of MSCs and pre-osteoblastic cells were treated with an osteogenic induction medium with/without the Sirt-1 inhibitor nicotinamide or/and resveratrol in a concentration dependent manner.
Results: MSCs and pre-osteoblastic cells differentiated to osteoblasts when exposed to osteogenic-induction medium. The osteogenic response was blocked by nicotinamide, resulting in adipogenic differentiation and expression of the adipose transcription regulator PPAR-γ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor). However, in nicotinamide-treated cultures, pre-treatment with resveratrol significantly enhanced osteogenesis by increasing expression of Runx2 (bone specific transcription factor) and decreasing expression of PPAR-γ. Activation of Sirt-1 by resveratrol in MSCs increased its binding to PPAR-γ and repressed PPAR-γ activity by involving its cofactor NCoR (nuclear receptor co-repressor). The modulatory effects of resveratrol on nicotinamide-induced expression of PPAR-γ and its cofactor NCoR were found to be mediated, at least in part, by Sirt-1/Runx2 association and deacetylation of Runx2. Finally, knockdown of Sirt-1 by using antisense oligonucleotides downregulated the expression of Sirt-1 protein and abolished the inhibitory effects of resveratrol, namely nicotinamide-induced Sirt-1 suppression and Runx2 acetylation, suggesting that the acetylated content of Runx2 is related to downregulated Sirt-1 expression.
Conclusion: These data support a critical role for Runx2 acetylation/deacetylation during osteogenic differentiation in MSCs in vitro. (242 words in abstract).