Predictors of cardiometabolic risk among adults with cerebral palsy

Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2012 May;93(5):816-21. doi: 10.1016/j.apmr.2011.12.024.


Objective: To examine the independent association between various anthropometric indicators and standard clinical markers of cardiometabolic health risk among adults with cerebral palsy (CP).

Design: Cross-sectional study.

Setting: Clinical center for CP treatment and rehabilitation.

Participants: Adults with CP (N=43) with a mean age ± SD of 37.3±13.2 years, and Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels of I-V.

Interventions: Not applicable.

Main outcome measures: Adults with CP were assessed for body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-height ratio (WtHR), and serum lipid profiles. Data were analyzed with multiple regression analysis and general linear models, and are reported as means ± SDs.

Results: Mean BMI was 29.1±7.8kg/m(2). BMI was not associated with any measures of cardiometabolic risk. Using GMFCS categories (2 groups: GMFCS levels I-III and IV-V), BMI was significantly lower among GMFCS levels IV-V (24.2±6.2kg/m(2)) versus GMFCS levels I-III (30.1±7.6kg/m(2)). WC and WtHR were not correlated with any cardiometabolic outcomes. Conversely, measures of WHR were independently associated with various indices of risk, including total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol ratio (r=.45; P<.05), HDL cholesterol (r=-.51; P<.01), and triglycerides (r=.40; P<.05), suggesting that greater WHR was indicative of elevated risk.

Conclusions: It is likely that WHR represents a stronger predictor of risk, because this measure was robustly and independently associated with 3 primary clinical markers of cardiometabolic health in adults with CP.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Body Height
  • Body Mass Index
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / blood
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / complications*
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / physiopathology*
  • Cerebral Palsy / blood
  • Cerebral Palsy / complications*
  • Cerebral Palsy / physiopathology*
  • Cholesterol / blood
  • Cholesterol, HDL / blood
  • Cholesterol, LDL / blood
  • Cholesterol, VLDL
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Linear Models
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Regression Analysis
  • Statistics, Nonparametric
  • Triglycerides / blood
  • Waist Circumference
  • Waist-Hip Ratio
  • Young Adult


  • Cholesterol, HDL
  • Cholesterol, LDL
  • Cholesterol, VLDL
  • Triglycerides
  • Cholesterol