Four-year incidence of open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension: the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study

Am J Ophthalmol. 2012 Aug;154(2):315-325.e1. doi: 10.1016/j.ajo.2012.02.014. Epub 2012 Apr 27.

Abstract

Purpose: To estimate the 4-year incidence of open-angle glaucoma (OAG) and ocular hypertension (OHT) among adult Latinos 40 years of age and older.

Design: Population-based longitudinal study.

Methods: Comprehensive ophthalmologic examinations including intraocular pressure, visual field testing, and stereoscopic fundus photography were performed at both baseline and the 4-year follow-up examination. Incident OAG at the 4-year follow-up examination was defined as the presence of an open angle and a glaucomatous visual field abnormality or evidence of glaucomatous optic disc damage, or both when not present at baseline. Incident OHT was defined as intraocular pressure of more than 21 mm Hg and the absence of optic disc damage or abnormal visual field results at the 4 year follow-up examination when not present at baseline.

Results: Among the 3939 participants (mean age, 54.7 ± 10.5 years) with complete data for a diagnosis of glaucoma at both baseline and follow-up examination, incident OAG at the 4-year follow-up was identified in 87 persons (4-year incidence rate, 2.3%; 95% confidence interval, 1.8% to 2.8%). Incident OHT at the 4-year follow-up was identified in 124 persons (4-year incidence rate, 3.5%; 95% confidence interval, 2.9% to 4.1%). In participants with OAG in 1 eye, the 4-year risk of OAG developing in the fellow eye was 5 times as high as the risk for those without OAG in either eye at baseline. In participants with OHT in 1 eye, the 4-year risk of OHT developing in the fellow eye was 10 times as high as the risk for those without OHT in either eye at baseline. The incidence rates of OAG and OHT were higher in older Latinos than in younger Latinos.

Conclusions: Incidence of OAG in Latinos is higher than in non-Hispanic whites, but lower than in Afro-Caribbeans. The relatively high rate of incident OAG and OHT underscores the need for community screening programs in this fastest growing segment of the United States population.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Age Distribution
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Female
  • Glaucoma, Open-Angle / diagnosis
  • Glaucoma, Open-Angle / ethnology*
  • Hispanic Americans / statistics & numerical data*
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Intraocular Pressure / physiology
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Los Angeles / epidemiology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Ocular Hypertension / diagnosis
  • Ocular Hypertension / ethnology
  • Population Groups
  • Sex Distribution
  • Vision Disorders / ethnology
  • Visual Fields / physiology