Hyaluronic acid (HA) is an ubiquitous form of non-sulphated glycosaminoglycan of the extracellular matrix of all mammalian connective tissues. It is mainly present during tissue's formation or during most of initial tissue's repair processess. Cell migration, adhesion and differentiation are only part of several unique biological characteristics of HA which have been under investigation in the past decades.
Aim of the study: Evaluate the possible positive effect of an esterified form of HA on gingival tissues in mild chronic periodontitis patients, seeking for the reduction of all the periodontal disease clinical parameters PLI (Plaque Index), BOP (Bleeding on Probing), PPD (Probing Pocket Depth), GI (Gingival Index), PAL (Probing Attachment Level).
Materials and methods: The study is an open, intra-patient, controlled, single center pilot clinical trial including 19 adult patients with mild chronic periodontitis and shallow pockets (< 4 mm) in at least two different quadrants. One quadrant was treated with HA gel after regular toothbrushing (test), the other without (control).
Results: Although oral hygiene itself had a similar positive influence on the improvement of all the clinical indexes for test and control, the treatment with HA gel showed a greater effect almost always statistically significant. BOP in the HA gel treated areas had a decrease of 92.7% and GI of 96.5%, whereas controls 75.8% and 79.0% respectively. The difference of PPD in both areas was statistically significant (p<0.01) in favour of the HA gel treated zone. Also PAL and Pl were reduced more with gel than with oral hygiene alone, although this did not reach a statistical significant difference.
Conclusion: It appears that an esterified gel form of HA has shown an effect in reducing the gingival inflammation when used as an adjunct to mechanical home plaque control and that it could be successfully used to improve the periodontal clinical indexes. This pilot study will gain substantial scientific significance when both a higher number of patients can be utilized and also by adding any possible further biological information, as with immunocytochemistry and histology.
Keywords: extracellular matrix; hyaluronan; periodontal disease.