Ventricular stroke work loss: validation of a method of quantifying the severity of aortic stenosis and derivation of an orifice formula

J Am Coll Cardiol. 1990 Dec;16(7):1608-14. doi: 10.1016/0735-1097(90)90309-d.


Because aortic stenosis results in the loss of left ventricular stroke work (due to resistance to flow through the valve and turbulence in the aorta), the percentage of stroke work that is lost may reflect the severity of stenosis. This index can be calculated from pressure data alone. The relation between percent stroke work loss and anatomic aortic valve orifice area (measured by planimetry from videotape) was investigated in a pulsatile flow model. Thirteen valves were studied (nine human aortic valves obtained at necropsy and four bioprosthetic valves) at stroke volumes of 40 to 100 ml, giving 57 data points. Valve area ranged from 0.3 to 2.8 cm2 and mean systolic pressure gradient from 3 to 84 mm Hg. Percent stroke work loss, calculated as mean systolic pressure gradient divided by mean ventricular systolic pressure x 100%, ranged from 7 to 68%. It was closely related to anatomic orifice area with an inverse exponential relation and was not significantly related to flow (r = -0.15). An orifice formula was derived that predicted anatomic orifice area with a 95% confidence interval of +/- 0.5 cm2 (orifice area [cm2] = 4.82 [2.39 x log percent stroke work loss], r = -0.94, SEE = 0.029). These results support the clinical use of percent stroke work loss as an easily obtained index of the severity of aortic stenosis.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aortic Valve / pathology
  • Aortic Valve Stenosis / diagnosis*
  • Aortic Valve Stenosis / physiopathology
  • Bioprosthesis
  • Heart Valve Prosthesis
  • Humans
  • Models, Cardiovascular
  • Pulsatile Flow / physiology
  • Regression Analysis
  • Stroke Volume / physiology*