Hereditary periodic fever syndromes, also called autoinflammatory syndromes, are characterized by relapsing fever and additional manifestations such as skin rashes, mucosal manifestations, or arthralgias. Some of these disorders present without fever but with the associated systemic manifestations. The responsible mutated genes have been identified for most of these disorders, which lead to the induction of the uncontrolled and excessive production of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta). The inhibition of IL-1beta through IL-1 receptor antagonist or monoclonal antibody against IL-1beta is used with success in most of these diseases. In case of TNF-receptor associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS) and paediatric granulomatous arthritis (PGA), TNF-antagonists may also be used; in familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) colchicine remains the first choice.