Background and Objectives. The human leukocyte antigen HLA-B27 is a class 1 antigen of the major histocompatibility complex and is strongly associated with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). The purpose of the present study is to investigate the distribution of HLA-B27 in patients with AS of different ethnic groups in Qatar. Design and Setting. Study design was cross-sectional and the setting was rheumatology clinics of Hamad General Hospital in Qatar where most of ankylosing spondylitis patients are followed up. Patients and Methods. Patients with diagnosis of AS who met the New York modified criteria for AS were tested for HLA-B27. 119 patients were tested for HLA-B27: 66 Arabs, 52 Asians (Indians, Pakistanis, Bengalis, and Iranians), and one Western (Irish). Results. Of all the individuals, 82 were positive (69%) for HLA-B27. Among the Arabs, 49/66 were positive (74%). Among the Asians, 32/52 were positive (61%). Furthermore, Qatari patients (10 males and one female) 9 were positive (82%), 14/19 Jordanians/Palestinians were positive, and 9/10 (90%) Egyptians were positive. Among the Asians, 19/26 Indians were positive (73%), which was similar to the Arabs. Conclusion. HLA-B27 in our small group of Arabs is present in 74%. Comparison with other data will be presented in detail.