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. 2012;2012:954374.
doi: 10.1155/2012/954374. Epub 2012 Apr 4.

Testing Homeopathy in Mouse Emotional Response Models: Pooled Data Analysis of Two Series of Studies

Free PMC article

Testing Homeopathy in Mouse Emotional Response Models: Pooled Data Analysis of Two Series of Studies

Paolo Bellavite et al. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. .
Free PMC article


Two previous investigations were performed to assess the activity of Gelsemium sempervirens (Gelsemium s.) in mice, using emotional response models. These two series are pooled and analysed here. Gelsemium s. in various homeopathic centesimal dilutions/dynamizations (4C, 5C, 7C, 9C, and 30C), a placebo (solvent vehicle), and the reference drugs diazepam (1 mg/kg body weight) or buspirone (5 mg/kg body weight) were delivered intraperitoneally to groups of albino CD1 mice, and their effects on animal behaviour were assessed by the light-dark (LD) choice test and the open-field (OF) exploration test. Up to 14 separate replications were carried out in fully blind and randomised conditions. Pooled analysis demonstrated highly significant effects of Gelsemium s. 5C, 7C, and 30C on the OF parameter "time spent in central area" and of Gelsemium s. 5C, 9C, and 30C on the LD parameters "time spent in lit area" and "number of light-dark transitions," without any sedative action or adverse effects on locomotion. This pooled data analysis confirms and reinforces the evidence that Gelsemium s. regulates emotional responses and behaviour of laboratory mice in a nonlinear fashion with dilution/dynamization.


Figure 1
Figure 1
Schematic representation of the arenas of the OF (above) and LD (bottom) tests. The hypothetical bifurcation point of the trajectory choice is indicated by an asterisk. (A) positive effect of the drug (less anxiety, less fear, more exploration attitude), (B) negative effect of the drug.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Correlations (Pearson's r) between different behavioural variables explored by the OF and LD tests. The data points for mice from the control groups of all replications were utilised.

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