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Review
. 2012 Apr;1254(1):51-6.
doi: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2012.06518.x.

Engineered Arterial Models to Correlate Blood Flow to Tissue Biological Response

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Free PMC article
Review

Engineered Arterial Models to Correlate Blood Flow to Tissue Biological Response

Jordi Martorell et al. Ann N Y Acad Sci. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

This paper reviews how biomedical engineers, in collaboration with physicians, biologists, chemists, physicists, and mathematicians, have developed models to explain how the impact of vascular interventions on blood flow predicts subsequent vascular repair. These models have become increasingly sophisticated and precise, propelling us toward optimization of cardiovascular therapeutics in general and personalizing treatments for patients with cardiovascular disease.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
A computational platform for design of scaffold-supports and flexible polymer constructs that reproduces complex individual arterial geometries and their underlying myocardium. (A) Swine hearts scanned using a Roland Active Piezo Sensor 3D laser scanner. A physician or pathologist defines where along the length of the artery of the scanned image (B) dimensions will be obtained and borders defined. The density of the determinations defines an effective mesh size for the reconstruction and allows for increased precision at specific areas of interest, e.g. at bifurcations. The coordinates that are determined represent arterial dimensions and are introduced in a custom designed Visual Basic® interface (C), which encodes up to four different macro files for CATIA®, ending up in IGS, STL and CAM files. Each file is used for a different aspect of reconstruction. The IGS file (D) is used for computational fluid dynamics simulation in TDyn®, the CAM file is used to drive formulation of Teflon® molds that will be used to mold PDMS scaffolds. STL files allow for direct 3D printing of the selected arterial architecture as a flexible polymer structure and their curved acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) support that mimics the contour established by the underlying myocardium (E).
Figure 2
Figure 2
A trilaminate cell-lined tubular structure is created from three human cell types, aortic adventitial fibroblasts (A; GFP retrovirus, green), aortic smooth muscle cells (B; smooth muscle cell α-actin, red) and coronary artery endothelial cells (C; PECAM-1, orange). Cell layers are created sequentially by seeding in PDMS scaffolds (D) that are upheld on an ABS support that recapitulates the exact architecture of the scanned heart.
Figure 3
Figure 3
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations for a scanned model of a swine left coronary artery bifurcation. Results are vector maps in mm/s at the instant of a pulse (A) and 0.005 seconds after the pulse (B). Patterns of flow stagnation and recirculation in the vicinity of the branch point with a minimal speed of −38mm/s. Results were confirmed by tracking microparticles flowing through the PDMS bifurcated scaffolds, using a 295 fps camera connected to an optical microscope. Microparticles with their associated trajectories in a high shear stress laminar steady flow region (C) and a low shear stress recirculation region (D).

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