This review article presents a summary of recent efforts to understand brain temperature and its regulation under different conditions. Brain temperature has a crucial influence on brain processes. Its regulation is the outcome of the balance of core and arterial blood temperatures, cerebral blood flow, brain metabolism, functional conditions, and external temperature. However, the relationship between these factors is not fully understood and several uncertainties remain. There are no satisfactory normative data on temperatures throughout the brain, but new technologies promise to fill this gap. Brain temperature changes with brain functional activation and under pathological conditions in ways that are not understood. A full understanding of brain temperature control is mandatory to optimize attempts at brain cooling during clinical conditions such as stroke and head injury.