In the adult brain, neural stem cells have been found in two major niches: the dentate gyrus and the subventricular zone [corrected]. Neurons derived from these stem cells contribute to learning, memory, and the autonomous repair of the brain under pathological conditions. Hence, the physiology of adult neural stem cells has become a significant component of research on synaptic plasticity and neuronal disorders. In addition, the recently developed induced pluripotent stem cell technique provides a powerful tool for researchers engaged in the pathological and pharmacological study of neuronal disorders. In this review, we briefly summarize the research progress in neural stem cells in the adult brain and in the neuropathological application of the induced pluripotent stem cell technique.