The most important complications of assisted reproductive techniques are the risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) and the high incidence of multiple pregnancies. Two new strategies are effective in preventing OHSS: the use of anti-müllerian hormone as a marker and the use of dopamine agonists. Genetic markers and vascular endothelial growth factor levels do not predict OHSS. In vitro oocyte maturation treatment should be considered in high responders and in women at risk of OHSS. For prevention of multiple pregnancies, the most effective method is transfer of a single embryo. Preimplantation genetic screening with comparative genomic hybridization, genetic expression of cumulus cells, time-lapse imaging, and respiration rate are emerging technologies for embryo selection that require further study.
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