Early immune responses are important in shaping long-term outcomes of human lung transplants. To examine the role of early immune responses in lung rejection and acceptance, we developed a method to retransplant mouse lungs. Retransplantation into T-cell-deficient hosts showed that for lungs and hearts alloimmune responses occurring within 72 h of transplantation are reversible. In contrast to hearts, a 72-h period of immunosuppression with costimulation blockade in primary allogeneic recipients suffices to prevent rejection of lungs upon retransplantation into untreated allogeneic hosts. Long-term lung acceptance is associated with induction of bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue, where Foxp3(+) cells accumulate and recipient T cells interact with CD11c(+) dendritic cells. Acceptance of retransplanted lung allografts is abrogated by treatment of immunosuppressed primary recipients with anti-CD25 antibodies. Thus, events contributing to lung transplant acceptance are established early in the graft and induction of bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue can be associated with an immune quiescent state.