The Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS) predicts toxicity and efficacy in platinum-based treated patients with metastatic lung cancer

Lung Cancer. 2012 Aug;77(2):383-8. doi: 10.1016/j.lungcan.2012.04.008. Epub 2012 Apr 30.


Purpose: Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer death. A cumulative prognostic score based on C-reactive protein and albumin, termed the Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS), indicates the presence of systemic inflammatory response. GPS has been proposed as a powerful prognostic tool for patients with various types of malignant tumors, including lung cancer. The aim of this study was to assess the predictive value of baseline GPS in terms of toxicity and response in lung cancer patients treated with platinum-based chemotherapy.

Patients and methods: Patients referred to our institution for consideration of first-line platinum-based treatment were eligible. Demographics and disease-related characteristics were recorded. Toxicity was graded according to NCI CTCAE version 3.0 throughout first-line therapy. GPS was calculated before the onset of treatment and was related to the development of toxicity. Response to first-line therapy and survival data were also collected.

Results: Totally, 96 lung cancer patients were accrued. GPS was associated with increased mucositis p=0.004), neurotoxicity (p=0.038), neutropenia (p=0.02), dose reductions or/ and need for granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) support (p=0.005), toxicity-related termination of treatment (p=0.001) and chemotherapy-related toxic deaths (p=0.013). GPS was associated with overall survival (p=0.016) and progression-free survival (p=0.016) as well as response to treatment (p=0.05).

Conclusions: Our data demonstrate that GPS assessment is predictive of the most important aspects of platinum-related toxicity and this may partly explain its associations with poor clinical outcome in patients with metastatic lung cancer.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects
  • Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use*
  • C-Reactive Protein / metabolism
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Inflammation
  • Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy*
  • Lung Neoplasms / mortality
  • Lung Neoplasms / pathology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Neoplasm Metastasis
  • Platinum / adverse effects
  • Platinum / therapeutic use*
  • Prognosis
  • Severity of Illness Index
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Platinum
  • C-Reactive Protein