Consuming pork proteins at breakfast reduces the feeling of hunger before lunch

Appetite. 2012 Oct;59(2):201-3. doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2012.04.018. Epub 2012 Apr 30.


This study investigated the effect of pork proteins consumed at breakfast on the subsequent feeling of hunger until the evening meal. The study involved 136 students at a local boarding school, which meant that the study could be carried out in the test persons' normal environment. All students consumed the control breakfast on one of the two test days, and then half the students consumed the medium-protein breakfast and the other half the high-protein breakfast on the other test day, thereby acting as his/her own control. It was clearly shown that consuming a medium- or high-protein breakfast decreased the hunger ratings until lunch (4 h) compared with a control breakfast. A dose-response relationship related to the amount of proteins consumed at breakfast was observed, the high-protein breakfast leading to feelings of being less hungry compared with consuming a medium-protein breakfast. However, there was no direct link between hunger ratings and actual energy intake at lunch. The self-reported snacking during the whole day showed no clear relationship with the type of breakfast consumed.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Animals
  • Appetite*
  • Breakfast
  • Dietary Proteins / administration & dosage*
  • Energy Intake*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hunger*
  • Lunch
  • Male
  • Meat Products*
  • Satiation
  • Snacks
  • Swine


  • Dietary Proteins