It has been reported that young animals are less vulnerable to brain ischemia. In the present study, we compared gliosis in the hippocampal CA1 region of the young gerbil with those in the adult gerbil induced by 5 min of transient cerebral ischemia by immunohistochemistry and western blot for glial cells. We used male gerbils of postnatal month 1 (PM 1) as the young and PM 6 as the adult. Neuronal death in CA1 pyramidal neurons in the adult gerbil occurred at 4 days post-ischemia; the neuronal death in the young gerbil occurred at 7 days post-ischemia. The findings of glial changes in the young gerbil after ischemic damage were distinctively different from those in the adult gerbil. Glial fibrillary acidic protein-immunoreactive astrocytes, ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule (Iba-1), and isolectin B4-immunoreactive microglia in the ischemic CA1 region were activated much later in the young gerbil than in the adult gerbil. In brief, very less gliosis occurred in the hippocampal CA1 region of the young gerbil than in the adult gerbil after transient cerebral ischemia.