Hormonal modulation of plant immunity

Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol. 2012;28:489-521. doi: 10.1146/annurev-cellbio-092910-154055. Epub 2012 May 3.


Plant hormones have pivotal roles in the regulation of plant growth, development, and reproduction. Additionally, they emerged as cellular signal molecules with key functions in the regulation of immune responses to microbial pathogens, insect herbivores, and beneficial microbes. Their signaling pathways are interconnected in a complex network, which provides plants with an enormous regulatory potential to rapidly adapt to their biotic environment and to utilize their limited resources for growth and survival in a cost-efficient manner. Plants activate their immune system to counteract attack by pathogens or herbivorous insects. Intriguingly, successful plant enemies evolved ingenious mechanisms to rewire the plant's hormone signaling circuitry to suppress or evade host immunity. Evidence is emerging that beneficial root-inhabiting microbes also hijack the hormone-regulated immune signaling network to establish a prolonged mutualistic association, highlighting the central role of plant hormones in the regulation of plant growth and survival.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Herbivory
  • Host-Pathogen Interactions
  • Humans
  • Plant Diseases / immunology*
  • Plant Growth Regulators / physiology*
  • Plant Immunity*
  • Plants / immunology*
  • Plants / metabolism
  • Plants / microbiology
  • Signal Transduction


  • Plant Growth Regulators