Objective: This study determined early and intermediate results of multibranched endovascular thoracoabdominal (TAAA) and pararenal aortic aneurysm (PRAA) repair using a uniform operative technique.
Methods: Eighty-one patients (mean age, 73 ± 8 years, 19 [23.5%] women) underwent endovascular TAAA repair in a prospective trial using self-expanding covered stents connecting axially oriented, caudally directed cuffs to target aortic branches. Mean aneurysm diameter was 67 ± 10 mm. Thirty-nine TAAA (48.1%) were Crawford type II, III, or V; 42 (51.9%) were type IV or pararenal. Thirty-three procedures (40.7%) were staged. The insertion approach was femoral for aortic components and brachial for branch components. Follow-up assessments were performed at 1, 6, and 12 months, and yearly thereafter.
Results: All devices (n = 81) and branches (n = 306) were successfully inserted and deployed, with no conversions to open repair. Overall mortality was 6.2% (n = 5), including three perioperative (3.7%) and two late treatment-related deaths (2.5%). Permanent paraplegia occurred in three patients (3.7%), and transient paraplegia/paraparesis occurred in 16 (19.8%). Four patients (4.9%) required dialysis postoperatively, three permanently and one transiently. Women accounted for 67% of the paraplegia, 75% of the perioperative dialysis, and 60% of the perioperative or treatment-related deaths. During a mean follow-up of 21.2 months, no aneurysms ruptured, but four (4.9%) enlarged: two were successfully treated, one was unsuccessfully treated, and one was not treated. No late onset spinal cord ischemia symptoms developed. Of the five patients starting dialysis during follow-up, two resulted from renal branch occlusion. Sixteen branches occluded (nine renal, two celiac) or developed stenoses (four renal, one superior mesenteric artery), requiring stenting. Primary patency was 94.8%, and primary-assisted patency was 95.1%. Thirty-two patients (39.5%) underwent 42 reinterventions. Of 25 early reinterventions (≤ 45 days), 10 were to treat access or insertion complications, and 5 were for endoleak. Of 17 late reinterventions, eight were for endoleak and five were for branch stenosis/occlusion. New endoleaks developed in two patients during follow-up. Overall, 73 of 81 patients (90.1%) were treated without procedure-related death, dialysis, paralysis, aneurysm rupture, or conversion to open repair.
Conclusions: Total endovascular TAAA/PRAA repair using caudally directed cuffs is safe, effective, and durable in the intermediate term. The most common form of late failure, renal artery occlusion, rarely had a clinically significant consequence (dialysis). The trend toward worse outcome in women needs further study.
Published by Mosby, Inc.