There has been immense progress in the management of venous thromboembolism in recent years with increased awareness and adequate thromboprophylaxis proving successful in reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with this condition. One of the commonest complications of an initial venous thrombosis is the development of recurrent thrombosis. Unlike in the case of the first clot, the diagnosis and management of the recurrent episode remain a difficult issue. Even more challenging is the clinical situation where a new thrombus develops while the patient is being treated with anticoagulant medication for a previous clot. The clinical approach and management of these patients are complex, and require understanding of the differences in thrombus development in the different clinical circumstances.
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