Background: The strength and direction of the associations between inflammation and coagulation biomarkers with kidney disease onset and progression remain unclear, especially in a population-based setting.
Study design: Prospective observational study.
Setting & participants: 4,966 participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) with a cystatin C-based estimate of glomerular filtration rate (eGFR(cys)) >60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) and at least one follow-up measurement of kidney function. All participants were free of cardiovascular disease at entry.
Predictor: We evaluated the associations of C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin 6 (IL-6), fibrinogen, factor VIII, and d-dimer levels with kidney function decrease.
Outcomes & measurements: Kidney function decrease was assessed primarily by repeated measurements of eGFR(cys) over 5 years. Rapid decrease in kidney function was defined as eGFR decrease >3 mL/min/1.73 m(2) per year. Incident low eGFR was defined as the onset of eGFR(cys) <60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) at any follow-up examination and eGFR(cys) decrease ≥1 mL/min/1.73 m(2) per year.
Results: Mean age was 60 years, 39% were white, 52% were women, and 11% had diabetes. Mean eGFR(cys) was 96 mL/min/1.73 m(2) and 7% had albuminuria. Median follow-up was 4.77 years. Higher factor VIII levels (per 1 standard deviation [SD] of biomarker) had the strongest association with kidney function decrease (β = -0.25; 95% CI, -0.38 to -0.12; P < 0.001), followed by IL-6 (β = -0.16; 95% CI, -0.29 to -0.03; P = 0.01), CRP (β = -0.09; 95% CI, -0.22 to 0.03; P = 0.1), and fibrinogen levels (β = -0.09; 95% CI, -0.22 to 0.04; P = 0.2). Each 1-SD higher concentration of IL-6 (OR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.07-1.23), factor VIII (OR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.03-1.18), and CRP (OR, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.02-1.16) at baseline was associated significantly with rapid kidney function decrease. Only IL-6 level was associated significantly with incident low eGFR (OR, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.00-1.19).
Limitations: Observational study design and absence of measured GFR.
Conclusions: Inflammation and coagulation biomarkers are associated with decreasing kidney function in ambulatory adults without established cardiovascular disease or chronic kidney disease.
Copyright © 2012 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. All rights reserved.