The past decade has witnessed a tremendous increase in the development of novel vaccines against tuberculosis (TB). In mice, each of these vaccine candidates stimulates an immune response that reduces the bacillary load, reflecting control but not sterilization of infection. Yet, the immune mechanisms underlying vaccine efficacy are only partially understood. In parallel to clinical assessment of current candidates, the next generation of vaccine candidates still needs to be developed. This requires basic research on how to induce the most efficacious immune response. Equally important is the dissection of immune responses in patients, latently infected healthy individuals, and participants of clinical vaccine trials. Amalgamation of this information will foster the way towards more efficacious vaccination strategies that not only prevent disease, but prevent or abolish infection.
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