Reprimo (RPRM) is a novel tumor suppressor in pituitary tumors and regulates survival, proliferation, and tumorigenicity

Endocrinology. 2012 Jul;153(7):2963-73. doi: 10.1210/en.2011-2021. Epub 2012 May 4.


Reprimo (RPRM), initially identified as a downstream effector of p53-induced cell cycle arrest at G(2)/M, is a putative tumor suppressor silenced in some types of cancer. In microarrays, the RPRM transcript was repressed 26-fold in gonadotrope (null cell) human pituitary tumors compared with normal pituitary but in the absence of changes in p53. Inhibition of RPRM mRNA was confirmed by RT-PCR in all gonadotrope tumors, most GH samples, and variably in other tumor types. Human pituitary tumors showed no evidence of abnormal promoter hypermethylation as a mechanism of RPRM repression. RPRM stable expression in gonadotrope (LβT2) and GH (GH3) pituitary cells resulted in decreased rates of cell proliferation by 55 and 30%, respectively; however, RPRM reexpression did not alter G(2)/M transition. In addition, RPRM increased rates of apoptosis in response to growth factor deprivation as assessed by caspase-3 cleavage and nuclear condensation. Clonagenic assays showed a 5.3- and 3.7-fold suppression of colony growth in RPRM-overexpressing LβT2 and GH3 cells, respectively, supporting its role as a tumor suppressor. In cells stably expressing RPRM mRNA, protein levels were actively suppressed due to rapid degradation through ubiquitination and proteasomal targeting. Growth factor withdrawal, as a model of cellular stress, stabilized RPRM protein levels. Together these data suggest that RPRM is transiently up-regulated at a posttranscriptional level in times of cellular stress to restrict cell survival, proliferation, and tumor formation. When RPRM is silenced as in human pituitary tumors, unrestrained growth and tumor progression may occur.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Active Transport, Cell Nucleus
  • Animals
  • Cell Cycle Proteins / physiology*
  • Cell Division
  • Cell Line
  • Cell Line, Tumor
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Cell Survival
  • CpG Islands
  • Cytoplasm / metabolism
  • G2 Phase
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic*
  • Genes, Tumor Suppressor
  • Glycoproteins / physiology*
  • Humans
  • Mice
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Pituitary Gland / metabolism
  • Pituitary Neoplasms / metabolism*
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods
  • Promoter Regions, Genetic


  • Cell Cycle Proteins
  • Glycoproteins
  • REPRIMO protein, mouse
  • RPRM protein, human